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雅思阅读:最难的同义替换是化整为零

同义替换可以说是雅思考试的核心技能,在听力和阅读中,我们通过同义替换来解题,在口语和写作中,我们通过同义替换展示表达的多样化和词汇的丰富度。

总的来说,同义替换一般有三种形式,同义词替换、表达方式替换以及化整为零。

前两种替换非常简单,举个栗子就清楚了:

smell is probably the most undervalued sense → sense of smell is not appreciated

同义词:undervalued、not appreciated

 

many fundamental questions have yet to be answered → Future studies into smell

表达方式替换,即换了种说法:很多问题还没解决→未来继续研究这些问题。同学们还需注意,表达方式的替换比较灵活,一定要多读几句,多核实几个细节。

最后一种替换最难掌握,我们常常需要在文章中找出各种细节才能与题干完成同义替换,稍不留神遗漏了某个细节,解题就无望了,还是来看看栗子吧。

首先来道标题对应题自虐一下:

 

原文:

To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, ATC extends over virtually the entire United States. In general, 

from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports,

 controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. 

Controlled airspace is that airspace in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. 

In this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace,

below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.

标题:Setting altitude zones

首先,根据位置学原理,我们很容易发现段首第二句就是主旨句,它具有概括性特征,后面的内容没有信号词,全是细节的罗列。

但是,这个主旨句说得很抽象,空中交通管制(ATC)覆盖了整个美国,似乎与所有标题都不能同义替换,就是这么鸡贼。我们接着往后看,会发现一些很抢眼的数字,356米,215米,这些数字描述的是高度。这个时候再回头看标题,有没有眼前一亮的感觉,因为altitude就是高度的意思啊,这就是化整为零的替换。

再来一道是非题自残一下:

 

原文:

E ... In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, 

controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground, and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface...In this way, 

the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m

while the pilot who does want the protection afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.

 

G Controlled airspace is divided into several different types, designated by letters of the alphabet. Uncontrolled airspace is designated Class F,

 while controlled airspace below 5,490m above sea level and not in the vicinity of an airport is Class E...

 

题干:Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports.

 

原文信息是从两个段落里摘出来的,什么?一个段落解决不了?是的,考雅不能太天真啊。来,大脑准备信息整合和推理。题干里的Class F来自段落G

below 356m和not near airports来自段落E。你没看错,中间还跳了一段,就是这么任性。

 

第一个信息:Class F is uncontrolled airspace(G段)

第二个信息:uncontrolled airspace is below 356m(E段)

第三个信息:controlled airspace is mainly near airports(E段)

(反之,uncontrolled airspace不靠近机场)

 

其中E段有一个迷惑信息:In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled airspace(一般来说,356米以上是控制空域),

但是,紧接着文章指出,In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground(在一些特定的区域,主要靠近机场,控制空域可以下降至215米的高度)。

 

通过整合以上信息,才能推理出Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports,脑子转过来了么?还是想洗洗睡了?

 

这道题可以说把化整为零的替换方式发挥到了极致,但还好,这种难度的题目并不多,烤鸭们可以安心睡了。

 



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